Allaah (تعالى ) said: “I Have Forbidden Oppression” – Explained by Shaykh Utahymeen (رحمه الله)

Allaah (تعالى ) said: “I Have Forbidden Oppression” – Explained by Shaykh Utahymeen (رحمه الله)

by AbdurRahman.org

Title: “I Have Forbidden Oppression”

شرح األربعني النبوييه :Title Original

Author: Muḥammad Ibn Ṣāliḥ al-‘Uthaymīn (رحمه الله)

The Ḥadīth

Abū Dharr al-Ghifārī (رضي الله عنه) reported that the prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) narrated that his Lord said:

“Oh My servants, I have forbidden oppression even for Myself, and I have made it forbidden among you as well, so do not oppress one another.”

The Explanation



Allaah says, “Oh My servants, I have made oppression forbidden even for Myself,” and He (Azza wa Jal) may make something forbidden upon Himself because the decision is His. As for us, we make nothing forbidden for Him, but He may forbid something upon Himself as He wishes just as He may obligate and decree something upon Himself.

Read the Statement of Allaah (تعالى ):

Say, “To who belongs whatever is in the heavens and earth?” Say, “To Allaah.” He has decreed upon himself mercy.[4]

And He pledged upon Himself:

“My Mercy surpasses My Anger.” [5]

Allaah has also made oppression forbidden among us as He says, “And I have made it forbidden among you as well.” This includes a person oppressing himself or others. However, the second meaning is more apparent as he then says, “So do not oppress one another.” Meaning: None of you may oppress another individual. Still, it is known that oppression may occur against oneself or against another;

Allaah says:

“And We did not oppress them, but they oppressed themselves.” [6]

The Arabic word for oppression, ظُلْم ẓulm, often revolves around failing to give someone else his or her rights or it could linguistically mean “shortcomings” as in the following verse as Allaah says:

“Each of the two gardens produced its fruit and did not fall short thereof in anything.”[7]

This understanding of oppression—failing to give others their rights—is of two types: 1) refusing to fulfill an obligation to another person, and 2) unlawfully forcing another person to do something which he should not have to do.

An example of the first type would be if you were to refuse to repay a debt to someone or to even postpone payment based on the prophet’s statement (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ):

“A rich person’s (one with means to repay) postponement (of repaying) is oppression.” [8]

And an example of the second type would be if you claimed someone owed you something and you deceitfully produced evidence of the claim so that the individual was forced to pay – this is oppression.

Question: By Allaah’s command, “So do not oppress one another,” is there any exception to this order?

Answer: No, oppression is forbidden under all circumstances, no exceptions.

Question: Is it permissible for us to take the wealth or possessions of the Muā’had? [9]

Answer: No, it is neither permissible for us to take the wealth and possessions of those with whom we have an understood agreement of peace, nor is it permissible for us to take their blood. The prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) said:

“Whoever murders a Muā’had will not even smell the fragrance of Paradise although its fragrance can be smelled from forty years away.” [10]

We ask Allaah for his help.

By this, we know the extent of the aggression, oppression, and utter misguidance of those arrogant individuals who hostilely transgress in taking the wealth and possessions of Muā’had unbelievers regardless of whether they are non-Muslims living peacefully with you in your land or if you were in their lands. We hear of some youths in non-Muslim lands claiming there is nothing wrong with taking wealth or ruining the possessions of disbelievers. You find them breaking street lights, destroying shops, and smashing cars. This is impermissible in Islam. Glorified is Allaah! A nation of people accepts you as guests into their lands, you are under their authority and their agreement of trust and yet you betray them. This is the severest form of misrepresenting and dishonoring Islam; it is slandering and disgracing Islam.

But the dishonor and disgrace is not actually against Islam. Rather it is against those individuals themselves – those who claim ascription to Islam. For that, it is incumbent to know that the wealth of non-Muslims under a trust or agreement of peace is sacred regardless of whether they are living peacefully among you or you with them in their lands. It is forbidden to show aggression and hostility against them because that is oppression.

Footnotes:

[1]This article is taken from selected parts of Muḥammad Ibn Ṣāliḥ al-‘Uthaymīn’s explanation of ḥadīth twenty-four of the famous forty-two ḥadīth collection by Imām an-Nawawī known as “al-‘Arba’īn al-Nawawī” or “Nawawī’s Forty (Ḥadīth).”

[2] This ḥadīth is actually much longer but only this portion is explained herein for brevity and for the article’s focus on the topic of oppression.

[3] Recorded by Muslim (no. 2577), Aḥmad (5/153, 160, 177), al-Tirmidhī (no. 2495), and Ibn Mājah (no. 4257).

[4] The Quran, Sūrah al-An’ām, 6:12.

[5] This is a ḥadīth qudsī recorded by Muslim, al-Bukhārī, al-Nasāī, and Ibn Mājah. In the text of Muslim, the prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) said:

When Allah created the creation, He pledged upon Himself in his book which is with him over his throne, “My mercy certainly overcomes my anger.”

[6] The Quran, Sūrah Hūd, 11:101.

[7] The Qur’an, Sūrah al-Kahf, 18:33.

[8] Recorded by al-Bukhārī (no. 2166) and Muslim (no. 1564).

[9] Translator’s Note: Muā’had refers to non-Muslims with whom Muslims have a stated or understood agreement of peace. This may be in the form of official documents (such as entry visas into one another’s countries) or the lack of any official, government-sponsored declaration of war. Thus, the actions of today’s Muslim terrorists, as they declare whole groups or nations of non-Muslims as enemy combatants as they see fit, are neither Islamic nor are they in conjunction with the ḥadīth above (and many other Islamic texts), and Allaah knows best.

[10] Recorded by al-Bukhārī (no. 3166).

Translated by Abu az-Zubayr Harrison (hafidhahullaah)

Posted from Original PDF:

http://authentic-translations.com/trans-pub/ae_misau_12.pdf

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Clarity – Defending the Religion & Uniting the Ranks upon the Truth

Clarity – Defending the Religion & Uniting the Ranks upon the Truth

Istiqaamah Magazine , Issue No.2, 1996.

DEFENDING THE RELIGION

Imaam Ahmad bin Hanbal (d.241H) (rahimahullaah) said:

“All praise is for Allaah who, in every age and intervals between the Prophets, raises up a group from the People of Knowledge, who call the misguided to guidance, patiently bearing ill treatment and harm. With the Book of Allaah they give life to the dead, and by Allaah’s Light they give sight to the blind. How many a person killed by Iblees (the Devil) have they revived. How many people astray and wandering have they guided. How beautiful their effect has been upon the people, and how vile people have been towards them. They expel from the Book of Allaah the alterations of those going beyond bounds, the false claims of the liars and the false interpretations of the ignorant ones – those who uphold the banner of innovation and let loose the trials and discords; who differ about the Book, oppose the Book, and agree upon opposing the Book. They speak about Allaah and His Book without knowledge, argue about what is ambiguous in the Book, and deceive the ignorant masses with such ambiguities. We seek refuge in Allaah from the trials of the misguided ones.” 1

Shaykhul-Islaam Ibn Taymiyyah (d.728H) (rahimahullaah) said:

“When some people asked Imaam Ahmad bin Hanbal that they felt uneasy about criticizing people, he replied: “If I were to remain silent, how would the ignorant masses know the truth from falsehood?” Those who introduce heretical writings which oppose the Qur’aan and the Sunnah and those who innovate in matters of worship, then it is obligatory that they be exposed and that the Muslims be warned against them – by unanimous agreement of the Muslims Scholars. In fact, when Imaam Ahmad bin Hanbal was asked about a person who fasted, preyed and secluded himself in the mosque for worship; if he was dearer to him than a person who spoke out against ahlul-bid’ah (the innovators), he replied: “When he fasts and prays and secludes himself, then he does so for the benefit of his own self. However, when he speaks out against the innovators, he does so for the benefit of the Muslims in general, and this is more virtuous.”

So it is clear that openly opposing the innovators is of general benefit to the Muslims and is considered one of the types of jihaad in the path of Allaah. Since purifying the religion of Allaah and defending it from their attacks is a collective obligation – as is agreed upon by the Scholars. For Allaah did not raise up some people to oppose the innovators, then the religion would suffer harm, corruption and deviation. Indeed, this type of corruption is even greater then the corruption resulting from the disbelievers conquering the Muslims. Since when the disbelievers conquer the Muslims, they do not corrupt their hearts, nor their religion, except after some time. Whereas the innovators corrupt the hearts from the very beginning.” [2]

UNITING THE RANKS UPON THE TRUTH

Shaykh ‘Abdul-‘Azeez bin Baaz (rahimahullaah) said:

“There is no doubt that it is obligatory upon the Muslims to unify their ranks and to unite their word upon the truth and to co-operate in goodness and piety against the enemies of Islaam – as Allaah, the Most Perfect, ordered them with in His saying:

“And hold fast altogether to the rope of Allaah and do not become divided.” [Soorah Aal-‘lmraan 3:102].

And likewise, Allaah has warned the Muslims against splitting up, as occurs in His – the Most Perfect’s – saying:

“And do not be like those who differed and split-up after the clear evidences came to them.” [Soorah Aal-‘lmraan 3:105].

However, the order to unify the Muslims and unite their word upon the truth and to hold fast to the rope of Allaah, does not necessitate that they should not censure wrong beliefs and practices – whether from the Soofees or other than them. Rather, what the order to hold fast to the rope of Allaah necessitates is: to order the good, forbid the evil and also to clarify the truth – with the clear Sharee’ah proofs – to whomsoever is misguided or has a mistaken opinion, until they unite upon the truth and turn away from that which opposes it. All of these are included in His – the Most Perfect’s – saying:

“And help you one another in righteousness and piety, and do not help one another in sin and transgression.” [Sooratul-Maa’idah 5:2].

And His – the Most Perfect’s – saying:

“Let there arise from amongst you a group of people calling to all that is good, enjoining the good and forbidding the evil, they are the ones who shall be successful.” [Soorah Aal’-lmraan 3:110].

And when the people of truth withhold from clarifying the mistakes of those who have erred or are mistaken, then they will not have achieved that which Allaah ordered them with, as regards calling to goodness, ordering the good and forbidding the evil. So the person in error will remain upon his error, and the one acting in opposition to the truth will remain upon his opposition. And this is contrary to what Allaah – the Most Perfect – prescribed, with regards sincere advice, co-operation upon goodness, ordering the good and forbidding the evil – and Allaah alone is the One who grants success.



Shaykh ‘Abdul-‘Azeez bin Baaz (rahimahullaah) was asked about the correctness of the saying: “We should unite upon that which we agree, and excuse each other in that which we disagree.” The Shaykh commented:

“Yes! It is obligatory to co-operate in that which we agree, by aiding the truth, calling to it and warning against that which Allaah and His Messenger (sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) have prohibited. If it is for excusing each other for that in which we differ – then this is not to be taken in an absolute sense, but rather in a general one. Thus, if the difference involves a particular issue of ijtihaad wherein the proofs are deep and detailed – then it is obligatory not to reproach or censure one another. However, if it opposes a clear text of the Book and the Sunnah, then it is obligatory to correct the one who has opposed the clear texts, but with wisdom, beautiful admonition and debating in the best possible manner, acting upon Allaah -the Most High’s – saying:



“And help you one another in righteousness and piety, but do not help one another in sin and transgression.” [Soorah al-Maa’idah 5:2]

And His – the Most Perfect’s – saying:

“The Believers – man and woman – are protectors to each other, they order the good and forbid the evil … ” [Soorah at-Towbah 9:71].

And His – the Mighty and Majestic’s – saying:


“Invite to the way of your Lord with wisdom and beautiful admonition, and argue with them in ways that are better.” [Soorah an-Nahl 16:125].

And he (sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) said:


“Whosoever sees an evil, then let him change it with his hand. If he is unable to do this, then with his tongue, and if he is unable to do this, then with his heart. And that is the weakest of eemaan (faith).”


And he (sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) said:


“Whosoever directs a person to do good, will have a reward similar to the one who does that good.” 5

And the aayaat (verses) and ahaadeeth with this meaning are plenty.” 6

1. Ar-Radd ‘alal-Jahmiyyah waz-Zanaadiqah (p.2) of Imaam Ahmad ibn Hanbal.

2. Majmoo’ul-Fataawaa (28/231-232).

3. Tanbeehaat fir-Radd ‘alaa man Ta’awwalis-Sifaat (pp.31-32).

4. Related by Muslim (2/21), from Abu Sa’eed al-Khudree (radiallaahu ‘anhu).

5. Related by Muslim (13/38), from Abu Mas’ood al-Ansaaree (radiallaahu ‘anhu).

6. Tanbeehaat fir-Radd ‘alaa man Ta’awwalis-Sifaat (pp.14-15)

Seeking Istiqaamah (Steadfastness)

Seeking Istiqaamah (Steadfastness)

Source: Al-Istiqaamah Magazine, Issue No.2

Allaah – the Most High – said:

“Indeed those who say: Our Lord is Allaah, and then do istiqaamah (be upright and obedient) upon them shall be no fear, nor shall they grieve. Those will be the companions of Paradise, to dwell therein forever – a reward for what they used to do.” [Soorah Ahqaaf 46:13].

From Abu ‘Umar Sufyan ibn ‘Abdullaah (radiallaahu ‘anhu), who said: O Messenger of Allaah (sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam)! Tell me something about Islaam which I can ask of no one but you? So he said: “Say: My Lord is Allaah and then do istiqaamah (be upright).” Abu ‘Umar then asked him: O Messenger of Allaah! What do you fear that is the most harmful to me? So he took hold of his tongue and said: “Control this.” 1

Abu Bakr as-Siddeeq (radiallaahu ‘anhu) said, whilst explaining the meaning of the aayah (verse):

“thereafter do istiqaamah” said:
 

“Not associating any partners in the worship of Allaah.”


And he said:
 

“Not turning to other than Him.”

Abul-‘Aaliyah (d.90H) (rahimahullaah) said:

“To make the religion and one’s actions pure and sincere for Allaah alone.”

Qataadah (d.104H) (rahimahullaah) said:

“To stand firm upon obedience to Allaah.” 2

Ibn Rajab (d.795H) (rahimahullaah) said:3

“The foundation of istiqaamah is: firmness of the heart upon tawheed (i.e. firmness in worshipping Allaah alone, not worshipping others along with Him) – as Abu Bakr and others have explained.”

Thus when the heart is firm and upright upon the ma’rifah (realisation and knowledge) of Allaah, and upon fear, veneration and awe of Him, and upon love, desire and hope in Him, calling upon Him, and repenting and turning away from everything besides Him – then the limbs will all follow in obedience to Him. This is because the heart is the king of the limbs and they are its army. So if the king is upright, then his army and subjects will be upright.

Then, after the heart, the greatest of the body-parts which takes care of one’s istiqaamah is the tongue – since the tongue is the translator of the heart and is its interpreter (i.e. the tongue is like a ladle which scoops-out what is in the heart). This is why, when the Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) ordered Abu ‘Umar with istiqaamah, he then ordered him to safeguard his tongue.

The Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) also said:

“The eemaan (faith) of a person will not be upon istiqaamah (firmness and obedience to Allaah), until his heart is upon istiqaamah. And his heart will not be upon istiqaamah, until his tongue is upon istiqaamah.” 4

And he (sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) said:

“When the son of Aadam wakes up in the morning, then all of the body-parts humble themselves to the tongue, saying: Fear Allaah with regards to us, for we are dependant upon you. If you have istiqaamah, then we have istiqaamah, and if you swerve, then we also swerve.” 5

Footnote:

1. Related by Muslim (no.31) and at-Tirmidhee (no.2535).

2. Ibn Katheer related these narrations in his Tafseer Qur’aanul-‘Adheem (4/106-107).

3. Jaami’ul-‘Uloom wal-Hikam (pp.312-313), abridged.

4. Related by Ahmad (3/198) with a Hasan isnaad.

5. Hasan: Related by at-Tirmidhee (no.2531), from Abu Sa’eed al-Khudree (radiallaahu ‘anhu). It was authenticated by al-Albaanee in Saheehul-Jaami’ (no.351).

The Yearning of the Pious for Paradise – Al-Istiqaamah News Letter.

The Yearning of the Pious for Paradise – Al-Istiqaamah News Letter.

Safar 1417H / July 1996, Issue No.2

Describing Paradise, Allaah – the Most High – said:

“Indeed Allaah will enter those who believe and do righteous and correct actions into Paradise, beneath which rivers flow. Wherein they will be adorned with bracelets of gold and pearls and their garments will be made of silk.” [Soorah al-Hajj 24:23].

“Indeed the pious and obedient ones will be in Paradise, amongst gardens and water-springs. It will be said to them: Enter! In peace and safety. And We shall remove from their hearts any ill-feeling, so they will be like brothers, facing each other on thrones. No sense of hardship shall touch them, and they will be of those who never leave.” [Soorah al-Hijr 15:45-46].

“Paradise, that precious sanctity to which, throughout the ages, the Believers run towards.

Paradise, a burning flame that was in the hearts of our Salafus-Saalih (Pious Predecessors), a flame that spurred them to aim for the highest examples of velour in jihaad and sacrifice.

Paradise, that noble goal which aspiring eyes are fixed towards and which yearning souls long for, in all times and in all places. They find worldly afflictions agreeable to them for the sake of achieving Paradise. Indeed, to enter into it and remain in it is considered the greatest goal for the Believers, and it is a hope which is kept in view throughout life’s journey. How often has Paradise been the incentive and a motivation for goodness and truth, despite the dangers, afflictions and thorns that lie along the path – even if it involves certain death.

This was the case in the days of the Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam), as Anas (radiallaahu ‘anhu) related: Once Allaah’s Messenger (sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) and his Companions proceeded towards Badr and arrived there before the disbelievers of Makkah. When the disbelievers arrived Allaah’s Messenger (sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) said: “None of you should proceed ahead of me in anything.” The disbelievers then advanced towards us and Allaah’s Messenger (sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) said: “Rise-up to enter Paradise, whose width is equal to the heavens and the earth.” Umayr ibn al-Humaam al-Ansaaree (radiallaahu ‘anhu) said: O Messenger of Allaah! Is Paradise equal in width to the heavens and the earth? He said: “Yes!” Umayr then exclaimed words of astonishment and excitement, so Allaah’s Messenger (sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) asked him: “What made you say these words of astonishment and excitement?” He replied: O Messenger of Allaah ! Nothing but the desire to be amongst its inhabitants. Allaah’s Messeneger (sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) then said, “Indeed, you are surely from amongst its inhabitants.” So ‘Umayr then took some dates from his bag and began to eat them. Then he said: If I were to live until I have eaten all the dates, then indeed this life would be too long. He threw away the remaining dates which were with him and he fought until he was killed. 1

This was also the stance taken in later times:

Abu Moosaa al-Ash’aree (radiallaahu ‘anhu), whilst in the presence of his enemy, narrated: Allaah’s Messenger (sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) said:

“Indeed, the gates of Paradise are beneath the shade of swords.” A man who was in a shabby condition got up and said: Abu Moosaa! did you hear this from the Messenger of Allaah (sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam)? So he said: Yes! He returned to his friend and said: I bid you salaam (a farewell greeting of peace). Then he broke the sheath of his sword, threw it away, then rushed into the thick of the enemy and fought them until he was slain. 2

Imaam ash-Shaafi’ee (d.204H) (rahimahullaah) said:

“O my soul! It is not, except a few days of patience;

As if the extent were but a few dreams.

O my soul! Pass quickly on through this world;

And leave it, for indeed life lies ahead of it.” 4

1. Related by Muslim (no.1901).

2. Related by Muslim (no.1902) and at-Tirmidhee (no.1659).

4. Related by Ibn Rajab in Fadl ‘Ilmus-Salaf (p.63).

Verification – Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzaan

Verification – Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzaan

Al-Istiqaamah Issue No.4 – Jumâdal-Awwal 1417H / November 1996

Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzaan (hafidahullaah) relates:

“Allaah – the Majestic, the Most High – orders us to verify any news that reaches us concerning a group or party from amongst the Muslims, when an evil news reaches us which necessitates fighting or opposing this group. Allaah – the Mighty, the Most High – orders us not be hasty and rush into this affair, until we have verified the matter.” Allaah – the Most Perfect – said:

“O you who believe! When a wicked person comes to you with some news, ascertain and verify it, less you harm someone in ignorance and then afterwards regret for what you have done.” [Soorah al-Hujuraat 49:6]

Meaning: If some news reaches you about a group or party from amongst the people, concerning an action that they have done and which deserves to be fought against, then do not be hasty about the matter, nor announce war against them, nor attack them – until you have verified the authenticity of the report.”1

Imaam Muslim relates in his Saheeh (no.5):

Abu Hurayrah (radiallaahu ‘anhu) relates that the Prophet (sallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) said: 

“It is enough to render a man a liar that he relates everything he hears.”

1. Wujoobut-Tathbbat fil-Akhbaari wa Ihtiraamil-‘Ulemaa (pp.22-23).

Sincerity (Ikhlaas) – Shaykh Ahmad Fareed

Sincerity (Ikhlaas) – Shaykh Ahmad Fareed

Source: Tazkiyatun-Nufoos (pp.7-10)

Al-Istiqaamah Magazine, Issue No.4 – Jumâdal-Awwal 1417H / November 1996

Ikhlaas (purity and sincerity of intentions): It is the stripping (i.e. the purifying) of one’s intentions in order to draw closer to Allaah – the Mighty and Majestic – in all matters. It is also said that ikhlaas is intending to single out Allaah alone with acts of obedience. It has also been said that ikhlaas is to forget about the creation by constantly looking towards the Creator.

And ikhlaas (sincerity) is a condition for Allaah to accept those righteous actions that are done in accordance with the Sunnah (guidance) of Allaah’s Messenger (sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam). So Allaah – the Most High – commanded us with His saying:

“And they have not been commanded except to worship Allaah alone, having ikhlaas (purity of intention) in their Religion and not setting-up partners with Allaah in the worship of Him.” [Soorah al-Bayyinah 38:5].

Abu Umaamah (radiallaahu ‘anhu) relates:

“Once a man came to Allaah’s Messenger (sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) and said: What do you think about a person who joins us in the fighting only to seek fame and wealth? So Allaah’s Messenger (sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) replied: “He receives nothing!” The man repeated the question three times, each time Allaah’s Messenger (sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) said: “He recieves nothing!” Then he said: “Indeed Allaah does not accept an action except if it is done with ikhlaas (i.e. purely for Allaah’s sake), seeking nothing but His Face.”2

Zayd ibn Thaabit (radiallaahu ‘anhu) relates:

“The Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) said: “May Allaah brighten whosoever hears my words, memorises them and then conveys them to others. Many a carrier of knowledge does not understand it, and many a carrier of knowledge conveys it to one who has better understanding. There are three things which the heart of a Believer has no malice about: Ikhlaas for Allaah in one’s action; sincere advice to the Muslim leaders; and clinging to the Jamaa’ah.”3

The meaning of the above being that these three matters strengthen the heart. And that whosoever adopts them, then his heart will be purified from deceit, corruption and evil. And no servant can be free from Shaytaan except by having ikhlaas, as Allaah – the Mighty and Majestic -said:

“Except those of Your servants who have ikhlaas.” [Soorah Saad 38:83].

It has been related from one of the pious people that he said: “O my soul! Have ikhlaas and then you will be purified.” Thus, whenever any share of this world – in which the soul takes comfort and the heart inclines towards, either greatly or slightly – enters into our actions, then it marrs the purity and ruins the ikhlaas. For man becomes preoccupied with his portion of the world and becomes immersed in his desires; and very seldom are his action, or acts of worship, free from temporary objectives or desires of this kind. That is why it has been said: “Whosoever secures in his lifetime even a single moment of ikhlaas, seeking the Face of Allaah, he will be saved.” This is because ikhlaas is something very precious, and cleansing the heart from impurities is something difficult.

So ikhlaas is: Cleansing the heart from all impurities – whether large or small – such that the intention of drawing closer to Allaah is stripped of all other motives, except that. And this matter cannot be imagined, except from someone who truly loves Allaah; and who is so absorbed in thinking about the Aakhirah (Hereafter), that there remains no place in his heat for the love of this world to settle. The likes of such a person – even when he is eating, drinking or answering the call of nature – has ikhlaas in his actions and has correct intentions. However, whosoever is not like this, then the doors of ikhlaas will be closed to him – except in rare exceptions. Likewise, whosoever is overwhelmed with the love of Allaah and the love of the Hereafter, then the actions that he does will all be characterised with this ikhlaas. However, if the person’s soul is overwhelmed with this dunyaa (world), then the actions that he does will be characterised with this love, such that no act of worship – whether it be Pasting or Praying, or other than these – will be accepted from him, except in a few cases.

The cure for loving this world is to break these worldly desires that the soul has, curing-off the greed it has for this world and purifying it for the Hereafter. This will then become the overwhelming trait of the heart and with this state achieving ikhlaas will become much easier. For how many actions there are that a person does, thinking that they are done with true ikhlaas (sincerity), seeking only the Face of Allaah, but he is deluded, for he does not see the defects in them!

Thus it has been related about someone that he used to always pray in the first row of the mosque. One day he was delayed in coming to the Prayer, so he had to pray in the second row. Feeling embarrassed at praying in the second row, the man realised that the satisfaction and pleasure of the heart that he gained from praying in the first row was due to him seeing that the people used to admire him for it. This is a very fine and subtle point and actions are seldom safe from it. Indeed, very few are there who realise such subtleties – apart from those upon whom Allaah – the Most High – has blessed and helped. Rather, those who are negligent of such matters will see their good deeds appearing as evil ones on the Day of Resurrection, and they are the ones who are referred to in Allaah – the Most High’s – sayings:

“And there will become clear to them that which they were not expecting. For the evil of their deeds will become apparent to them.” [Soorah az-Zumar 39:47-48].

“Say: Shall We inform you about those who will lose most in respect to their actions? Those whose efforts have been wasted in the life of this world, whilst they thought that they were doing good actions.” [Soorah al- Kahf 18:103-104].



Some Sayings Concerning Ikhlaas
Ya’qoob (رحمه الله) said:

“A mukhlis (one who truly has ikhlaas) is someone who conceals his good actions, as he conceals his bad ones.”

As-Soosee (رحمه الله) said:

“True ikhlaas is not to see your ikhlaas. Indeed, whosoever identifies ikhlaas in his ikhlaas, then he is in need of having ikhlaas in his ikhlaas!” And what this indicates is to purify one’s actions from being amazed with oneself. Since whosoever considers his ikhlaas, being amazed with it, has fallen into great danger. For ikhlaas is to be pure and free from such dangers of being amazed with one’s own actions.”

Ayyoob (رحمه الله) said:

“Having Ikhlaas (sincerity for Allaah) in the intentions for any action, is much more harder than performing the action itself.”

One of the Salaf (Pious Predecessors) said:

“To have true ikhlaas even for a short time, is to be saved. However, ikhlaas is very rare.”

Suhayl (رحمه الله) was asked:

“What is the thing most difficult for the nafs (soul)? He replied: “To have ikhlaas, especially when the soul is not disposed towards it.”

Al-Fudayl ibn ‘Iyyaad (رحمه الله) said:

“Abandoning action for the sake of people, is to seek their admiration. To do an action for the sake of people is to commit Shirk (to associate in the worship of Allaah, others along with Allaah). Indeed ikhlaas is when Allaah saves you from both of these states.”

1. Tazkiyatun-Nufoos (pp.7-10).

2. Hasan: Related by an-Nasaa’ee (6/25). It was authenticated by al-Haafidh al-‘lraaqee in Takhreejul-lhyaa (4/28).

3. Saheeh: Related by Ahmad (4/80) and Ibn Maajah (no.230). It was authenticated by al-Albaanee in as-Saheehah (no.404).

Reconciling the Hearts.

Reconciling the Hearts

Al-Istiqaamah, Issue No.3

Allaah – the One free from all imperfections – said:

“So have taqwaa (fear and obedience) of Allaah and reconcile the differences between yourselves.” [Soorah al-Anfaal 8:1].

“Indeed the Believers are but brothers. Therefore reconcile the differences between your brothers, and fear Allaah so that you may receive mercy.” [Soorah al-Hujuraat 49:10].

“So this is a knot which Allaah has bound the Believers together with, such that whenever a person is found possessing eemaan (faith) in Allaah, His Angels, His Books, His Messengers and the Last Bay – whether in the eastern or western part of the world – then such a person becomes the brother of the Believers. This brotherhood obligates that the Believers should love for that person that which they love for themselves, and hate for that person that which they hate for themselves. Therefore, the Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) said – whilst ordering the brotherhood of eemaan (faith):

“Do not envy one another. Do not inflate prices upon one another. Do not hate one another. Do not forsake one another. Do not under-cut one another. But be worshippers of Allaah and brothers. The Muslim is the brother of another Muslim; he neither oppresses him, nor humiliates him, nor lies to him, nor holds him in contempt. And piety is right here – and he pointed to his chest three times. It is enough evil for a person to hold his brother Muslim in contempt. The whole of a Muslim for another Muslim is sacred; his blood, his property and his honour.” 1

And he (sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) said:

“The Believer to the Believer is like a solid structure, one part supporting the other.” And he interlaced his fingers to demonstrate this.” 2

Thus Allaah and His Messenger (sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) ordered that the rights of the Believers be fulfilled by each other, and that those matters which will bring about harmony, love and togetherness be carried out. All of this is to be done in order to further the rights that they have over one another. So from such rights is that when fighting occurs between them – thereby causing their hearts to separate and to have hatred and to cut-off from each other – then the Believers should bring about reconciliation between their brothers and do that which will remove the enmity. Then Allaah ordered taqwaa in general and made the bestowal of His Mercy the consequence of their having taqwaa and their fulfilling the rights of the Believers. So He said: 

“And have taqwaa of Allaah in order that you may receive mercy.” Thus, if Allaah’s Mercy is attained, then the good of this world and the Hereafter will also be attained.” 3

‘Aaishah (radiallaahu ‘anhaa) used to say, that when people abandoned acting upon this Aayah (verse):

“When two parties of the Believers fight each other, then make reconciliation between them.” [Soorah al-Hujuraat 49:9]. So when the Muslims began fighting each other, it was obligatory to reconcile them, as Allaah – the Most High – ordered. However, when they did not do this, then fitnah (trials and tribulations) spread, as did ignorance, and this is what caused the differences to continue.” 4

Allaah’s Messenger (sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) said: “Shall I not inform you of something that is greeter in degree than (optional) fasting, charity and Prayer?” They said: Indeed inform us. So he said: “It is reconciling the people. For indeed causing corruption between them is the shaver!” 5

And he (sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) explained this shaving in another saying:

“The disease of the people before you has overcome you, namely envy and hatred and it is the shaver. I do not say that it shaves-off the heir. Rather, it shaves-off the religion!” 6

1. Related by Muslim (no.2564), from Abu Hurayrah (radiallaahu ‘anhu).

2. Related by al-Bukhaaree (no.481) and Muslim (no.2585), from Abu Hurayrah (radiallaahu ‘anhu).

3. Tayseerul-Kareemur-Rahmaan (7/133-134) of Shaykh as-Sa’dee.

4. Related by Ibn Abil-‘lzz in Sharhul-‘Aqeedatit-Tahaawiyyah (2/777). Al-Bayhaqee related something similar to this in his Sunanul-Kubraa (8/172).

5. Saheeh: Related by at-Tirmidhee (no.2640) and Abu Daawood (no.4919), from Abud-Dardaa (radiallaahu ‘anhu). It was authentitated by al-Albaanee in Ghaayatul-Maraam (no.414).

6. Hasan: Related by at-Tirmidhee (no.2641), from az-Zubayr ibn al-‘Awwaam (radiallaahu ‘anhu). It was authenticated by al-Albaanee in Saheeh Sunan at-Tirmidhee (no.2038).

Hoping in Allah’s Mercy – Shaykh Ahmad Farid

Hoping in Allah’s Mercy – Shaykh Ahmad Farid

Source: Tazkiyatun-Nufoos (pp.103-107) of Shaykh Ahmad Fareed.

RAJAA (HOPE) IN ALLAAH

Hope: it is the peaceful state of the heart which awaits what is dear to it. If the means – by which what the heart hopes for may come – are not present, then stupidity and foolishness would be a more accurate name for such a state. Similarly, if there is no doubt that what is being hoped for will definitely occur, then likewise, this state cannot be referred to as hope. For example, it would not be correct to say: I hope that the sun rises today. However, it would be correct to say: I hope that it rains today.

The Scholars who have studied matters pertaining to the heart have said: that this world is like land that is cultivated for its fruits in the Hereafter; and that the heart is like the earth; and that eemaan(faith) is like the seeds; and that acts of obedience are like ploughing and preparing the soil for planting, and digging channels in order to irrigate and bring water to it.

The heart which is in love with this world is like barren land, from which seeds cannot sprout. The Day of Judgement is like the day of harvest – and each person reaps what he sows. And no seed can sprout, except the seeds of eemaan, and eemaan very seldom benefits if the heart is corrupt and has bad qualities.

BETWEEN HOPE AND DELUSION

The example of a servants hope in Allaah’s mercy and forgiveness can be likened to the hope of a farmer: If the farmer searches for fertile soil, then sows it with good and healthy seeds, giving to the seeds what they need at the appropriate time, removing from around them the weeds and anything else that may hinder or ruin their growth, then he sits and waits for the Favour of Allaah – the Most High – with regards to Him keeping away violent storms and other harmful elements, until the seeds have fully ripened and grown – then this type of waiting and expectation can truly be described as hope. However, if the farmer sows the seeds in hard and barren soil, too high up for water to reach it, and he does nothing to care and protect the seed from harm, and then he sits and waits for a good harvest – then this waiting and expectation is not called hope, rather, such waiting is called foolishness and delusion!

So, the term hope only applies to waiting for what is dear or desired, after all the means – that will assist in realising this desire and are within the ability of the person – have been utilised. As for that which is not within the servants ability, then it is left to the favour of Allaah – the Most High – and He is the One who can prevent harmful matters, if He so wishes. So if the servant sows the seeds of eemaan, and waters them with acts of obedience to Allaah, and cleanses his heart from harmful qualities and traits, then waits for the favour of Allaah – the Most High – with regards being granted firmness upon this until death and an excellent end leading to His forgiveness – then such a wait can truly be called hope. Allaah – the Most High – said:

“Indeed those who believe and those who migrate and who make jihaad in the path of Allaah, they are the ones who have the hope of Allaah’s mercy. And indeed Allaah is Oft-Forgiving, Most-Merciful.” [Soorah al-Baqarah 2:218].

The meaning of this being that such people are truly worthy of hoping in Allaah’s mercy. And He did not intend only to particularise them with this, since others also can hope in Allaah’s mercy. However, He particularised them as being those who truly deserve to hope. So the one whose hope in Allaah’s mercy guides him to obedience and deters him from disobedience, his hope is true. And the one whose hope invites him to being immersed in sin and disobedience, is in delusion.

It is also necessary to know that truly hoping in something necessitates three things:

Firstly: Yearning for what one hopes.

Secondly: Fearing to miss gaining it.



Thirdly: Striving to achieve it.

If hope is not connected with any one of these matters, then it is mere wishful thinking, since hope is one thing, and wishful thinking something else. And every person who is hopeful, is also fearful, and whosoever traverses a path, makes haste when he fears that he may miss what he hopes for.

Abu Hurayrah (radiallaahu ‘anhu) relates that Allaah’s Messenger (sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) said:

“Whosoever fears being plunderered by the enemy, sets out in the early part of the night, and whosoever sets out early reaches the destination. Indeed the treasures of Allaah are precious. Indeed the treasures of Allaah is Paradise.” 2

Allaah – the One free from all defects, the Most High – said:

“Say: O My servants who have wronged their souls due to sin. Do not despair in Allaah’s mercy, for indeed Allaah forgives all sins. Indeed He is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.” [Soorah az-Zumar 39:53].

And Allaah – the Mighty and Majestic – said:

“Indeed your Lord is full of forgiveness for mankind, inspite of their wrong-doing.” [Soorah ar-Ra’d 13:6].

‘Umar ibn al-Khattaab (radiallaahu ‘anhu) relates that some prisoners were brought before Allaah’s Messenger (sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) and amongst them was a woman who was frantically searching for someone in the crowd. When she found a baby amongst the prisoners, she took it in her arms, cradled it next to her chest and suckled it. So Allaah’s Messenger (sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) said: “Do you think that this woman would ever throw her child into the Fire?” We said: By Allaah ! Never! So he said: “Allaah is more merciful to His believing servants than that mother could ever be to her child.” 3

Abu Hurayrah (radiallaahu ‘anhu) relates that Allaah’s Messenger (sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) said:

“Indeed before Allaah created the creation, He decreed for Himself ‘Indeed My mercy prevails over My anger.’”4

Anas (radiallanhu ‘anhu) relates that he heard Allaah’s Messenger (sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) say: 

“Allaah – the Most High – said O son of Aadam! As long as you call upon Me and hope in Me, I shall forgive you for what you have done and I shall not mind. O son of Aadam! If your sins were to reach the clouds of the sky and you were then to ask forgiveness of Me, I would forgive you. O son of Aadam! Were you to come to Me with sins nearly as great as the earth, and were you then to meet Me without committing any shirk (i.e. calling upon someone else, or worshipping someone else) along with Me, I would bring you forgiveness as great as it.”5

Yahyaa ibn Mu’aadh said:

“In my view, the worst kind of self-delusion is to greatly sin, yet hope for forgiveness without feeling any regret; and to hope to draw close to Allaah – the Most High – without obedience to Him; and to await the fruits of Paradise, by planting the seeds for Hell-Fire; and to seek the abode of the obedient ones, by doing acts of disobedience; and to expect a reward, without doing any worthy action; and to hope in Allaah – the Mighty and Majestic – after overstepping the bounds.”

“You hope for salvation but do not tread its path. A ship never sails upon dry land.”6

2. Saheeh: Related by at-Tirmidhee (10/227) and al-Haakim (4/30) who both authenticated it.

3. Related by al-Bukhaaree (10/426) and Muslim (18/80).

4. Related by al-Bukhaaree (13/384) and Muslim (17/68).

5. Saheeh: Related by at-Tirmidhee (no.2805) and Ahmad (5/172). It was authenticated by al-Albaanee in as-Saheehah (no.126).

6. Related by Ibn Hibbaan in Rawdatul-‘Uqalaa (p.284), from the poetry of Abul-‘Atiyyah.



Source: al-Istiqaamah magazine – Issue No.3 – Rabi’ul-Awwal 1417H / August 1996

An-Nawawī and Al-Albānī: on seeking forgiveness for the deceased non-Muslims.

An-Nawawī and Al-Albānī: on seeking forgiveness for the deceased non-Muslims.

‘Alī Ibn Abī Tālib (رضي الله عنه) said: I heard a man seeking forgiveness for his polytheist parents. So I said: “You seek forgiveness for your parents and they are polytheists?!” The man said: “Did not Ibrāhīm (ﷺ) seek forgiveness for his father, and he was a polytheist?” So I informed the Prophet (ﷺ) of that, and the following verse was revealed:

“It is not correct for the Prophet and those who believe to ask Allah’s forgiveness for the polytheists even if they be close kin, after it has become clear to them that they are the dwellers of the Fire [because they died in a state of disbelief]. And the request of forgiveness of Ibrahim for his father was only because of a promise he had made to him. But when it became apparent to Ibrahim that his father was an enemy to Allah, he disassociated himself from him. Indeed Ibrahim was compassionate and patient.” (At-Tawbah 113-114) Reported An-Nasā’ee 1/286; At-Tirmidhee 4/120 and he declared it hasan; Ahmad 771, 1085, Al-Hākim 2/335 who declared it saheeh, and Dhahabee agreed.

Al-Albānī (رحمه الله) said: “The forgiveness referred to here is that which Allah has mentioned at the end of Sūrah Ibrāhīm (14:41) wherein Ibrahim (ﷺ) said:

“Our Lord, forgive me and my parents and the believers the Day the account is established.”

Ibn Abī Hātim reported with an authentic chain of narration as Suyootee stated in Al-Fatāwā (2/419) from Ibn ‘Abbās (رضي الله عنه) who said:

“Ibrāhīm did not cease seeking forgiveness for his father until he died – and when his father died, it was made clear to him that he was an enemy of Allah, so he did not seek forgiveness for him.” (Ahkāmul-Janā’iz, p. 124)

An-Nawawī (رحمه الله) said:

“The funeral prayer over the unbeliever; and supplicating for his forgiveness is forbidden by the text of Qur’ān and by consensus (ijmā’).” (Al-Majmū’ 5/144, 258)

Al-Albānī (رحمه الله) stated:

“I say: from this, you come to know the error of some of the Muslims today who invoke the mercy of Allah and His pleasure upon some of the non-Muslims. And this is something being done plentifully by some [Muslim] journalists. Indeed I have heard that one of the heads of the Arabs who is well known for religiosity invoked the mercy of Allah upon Stalin the communist [1]; both himself and his ideology is the from the severest, most vehement enemies of Islam! And that was a speech delivered in a radio broadcast by this leader upon the occasion of the death of Stalin. And it is not surprising that this ruling is unknown to the likes of this person. However, what is surprising is that some of the Islamic callers have also fallen into this, wherein one of them said in a treatise, “May Allah have mercy upon the [deceased] Bernard Shaw…” [2] And some trustworthy narrators mentioned to me that one of the sheikhs would pray the funeral prayer over those who died from the esoteric (Bātinee) sect of Isma’īlees whilst he himself believes that they are non-Muslims, due to the fact that they don’t believe in the Prayer (Salāh) or the Hajj and they worship a human being! Yet alongside all these he prays over their deceased out of hypocrisy and wishing to impress them. And to Allah is the complaint and His aid is sought.” (Ahkāmul-Janā’iz, p. 124)

Footnotes:
[1] Joseph Vissarionovich Stalin (18 December 1878 – 5 March 1953) was the leader of the Soviet Union from the mid-1920s until his death in 1953. Holding the post of the General Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, he was effectively the dictator of the state. Stalin was one of the seven members of the first Politburo, founded in 1917 in order to manage the Bolshevik Revolution, alongside Lenin, Zinoviev,Kamenev, Trotsky, Sokolnikov and Bubnov. Among the Bolshevik revolutionaries who took part in the Russian Revolution of 1917, Stalin was appointed General Secretary of the party’s Central Committee in 1922. He subsequently managed to consolidate power following the 1924 death of Vladimir Lenin by suppressing Lenin’s criticisms (in the postscript of his testament) and expanding the functions of his role, all the while eliminating any opposition. He remained General Secretary until the post was abolished in 1952, concurrently serving as the Premier of the Soviet Union from 1941 onward. (source: wikipedia).

[2] George Bernard Shaw (26 July 1856 – 2 November 1950), known at his insistence simply as Bernard Shaw, was an Irish playwright, critic and polemicist whose influence on Western theatre, culture and politics extended from the 1880s to his death and beyond. He wrote more than sixty plays. (source: wikipedia)

DU’AA TO OTHER THAN ALLAAH IS SHIRK.

DU’AA TO OTHER THAN ALLAAH IS SHIRK

The Prophet (ﷺ) said:

“Whosoever dies whilst making du’aa (invocation, supplication) to others besides Allaah, will enter the HellFire.” {Related by al-Bukhaaree (no.4297), from Ibn Mas’ood رضي الله عنه.}

A PROOF FROM THE COMPANIONS
Anas (رضي الله عنه) related:

“In times of drought, ‘Umar ibn al-Khattaab (رضي الله عنه) used to ask ‘Abbaas ibn ‘Abdul-Muttalib to pray for rain on their behalf. He himself would say: “O Allaah we used to ask Your Prophet to supplicate on our behalf to You, and You would bless us with rain. Now we ask the uncle of our Prophet to supplicate to You on our behalf, so bless us with rain.” Anas said: So they would be blessed with rain.” {Related by al-Bukhaaree (no.1010).}

Sulaym ibn ‘Aamir al-Khabaairee رحمه الله relates:

“That the sky withheld all rain, so Mu’aawiyah ibn Abee Sufyaan went out to pray for rain along with the people of Damascus. So when Mu’aawiyah sat upon the pulpit he said: “Where is Yazeed ibn al-Aswad al-Jurashee?” So the people called him and he came stepping between the people. Then Mu’aawiyah commanded him, so he ascended the pulpit and sat at his feet. Then Mu’aawiyah said: “O Allaah! Today we are asking the best and most noblest amongst us to supplicate to You for us. O Allaah, today we put Yazeed ibn al-Aswad al-Jurashee forward to supplicate to You for us. O Yazeed! Raise up your hands to Allaah.” So he raised up his hands and the people raised up their hands. Then rain-clouds, like large shields, came quickly from the west, and the winds blew, and it rained so much that people could hardly reach their houses.” {Related by Ibn ‘Asskir in Tareekh Dimishq (18/151/1).}

So why didn’t ‘Umar (رضي الله عنه) and the rest of the Companions who were with him, go to the grave of our beloved Prophet (ﷺ); or to the grave of the greatest of the awliyaa Abu Bakr (رضي الله عنه), and make du’aa (supplication) to them for rain? Why? Because they knew that doing so would constitute shirk? Likewise, why didn’t Mu’aawiyah, and those of the righteous people with him, not delegate someone to go to Madeenah – to the grave of the Prophet (ﷺ), or any of the Companions buried there – or directly make du’aa to them from Damascus, in their time of distress and great need? Why? Because they knew that doing so would constitute shirk!

Another point of benefit is the understanding that they (meaning the Companions) didn’t use the name of the dead (in the person of the Messenger ﷺ) to supplicate, rather what they understood as being right and proper in the light of the knowledge of Tawheed is that a person can only make supplication through another person if that other person is living amongst those who are in need and he is capable of fulfilling their need (not asking the person to give them a child or similar request). It is of common practice to hear people making supplication in the form of statements like, “for the sake of the Messenger ﷺ” because they erroneously think that it is proper. Rather, what we should understand is the fact that only Allaah Ta’ala is Capable and Perfect, and He is in no need of an assistant as a means of getting our supplications to be answered. And with Allaah lies all Strength and Might.

Source: Al-Istiqaamah Magazine, Issue No.7

Subhanaka Allaahumma wabihamdika ash’adu an la ilah ila anta astaghfiruka wa atoybu ilayk.